Pr. Dr Ahmed ENNAOUI  

Actual activities

President of Scientific Council, Institut de Recherche en Energie Solaire et Energies Nouvelles / IRESEN, Morocco.



Editorial Board/Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 

Last Job

January 2015-March 2017: Reserch Director for solar energy group at Qatar Environment & Energy Research Institute (QEERI), Qatar Foundation (QF) and Full Professor at College of Science and Engineering (CSE), Hamad Bin Khalifa University (HBKU) Qatar.


Dr. Ahmed Ennaoui is Physician and material scientist, graduated from from “University de Bourgogne”, France with a MSc in Solid State Electronic and Doctoral thesis in 1979 on the modification of TiO2 single crystal electrode to extend photoelectrochemical water splitting in the visible spectrum. Ennaoui Ahmed began his career as Assoc. Professor at University Mohamed 5. After four years of theaching at UM5 and reseach visiting researching at CNRS, Meudon Bellevue, he moved to Germany and joined in 1983 Hahn-Meitner Institute-Berlin (HMI) “Abteilung Solare Energetik und Materialforschung” as scientist. He conducted research for his Habilitation on new earth abundant materials for solar energy conversion. He obtained his habilitation (summa cum laude) in April 1987, with Prof. Helmut Tributsch and worked as scientist and senior scientist at HMI and Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie (HZB) developing state-of-the-art capabilities for processing thin films and related solar cells. He was promoted in 2000, to head research group and project leader pursuing research on several EU's Framework programs for Research and PV Technological Development including programs finaced by the German Federal Ministry of Education (namely: JOULE II, CIS-LINE, NEBULES, ATHLET, CHEETAH, NEUMAS). He conducted successful feasibility studies financed by the industry (Siemens/Shell-Solar/Avancis, Solibro, Bosch, Atotech). After a qualification training he served as Radiation protection commissioner for the institute of Heterogeneous Material Systems at HZB (2009 to 2014). Ahmed ‘s research interests are primarily focused on emerging thin film solar technology, from planar films to nanostructures including 2D Van der Waals (VdW) layered materials (WS2, MoS2, ...) , superhydrophobic materials, antisoiling coating and photoelectrochemical energy conversion for hydrogen production Power-to-Hydrogen. Ahmed Ennaoui worked from January 2015 to March 2017 as joint Professor at Hamad Bin Khalifa University (HBKU) and Research Director of Solar Energy group at Qatar Environmental and Energy Research Institute (QEERI). At QEERI, he managed research team, recruited top scientists and developed novel methods allowing Drop on-Demand (D-O-D) patterning of materials with negligible materials waste and small environmental footprint such as inkjet printing technology. He established a track record, building partnerships with industry and academia during his stay at Qatar Foundation from January 2015 to May 2017. He managed QEERI’s solar test facilities (STF with ~200 kW) and contributed to the development of PV soiling solution, improving O&M of the infrastructure at the STF. He proposed and build a relevant low CAPEX manufacturing process of Thin Film PV technology to reduce the cost per watt peak of solar modules through a baseline inkjet printing precision deposition technology.  

He was visiting professor at Osaka University/Japan, and taught at Osaka university seminar for graduate students on Advanced Thin Film chalcogenide materials for PV application. He was also involved in the evaluation of renewable energy seminar program for graduate students at Free University Berlin, Germany. He is permanently member of the editorial Board of Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. As president of the Scientific Council of the Moroccan Solar Energy Institute "IRESEN”, he is reviewing and evaluating scientific projects submitted to the council, he is organizing scientific symposia, conferences and courses that contribute to the improvement of the quality of the scientific research of IRESEN. He is evaluating at any time the quality of work of different groups and laboratories of IRESEN or those working for the institute. He is member of International Solar Energy Society (ISES) and and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) where he is elevated to senior member grade. He also served for the evaluation of research proposal for Technology Foundation STW and for the Schweizerische National funding (SNF) program sinergia. the scientific-technical committee for the International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference (IRSEC). During his career he supervised more than 40 completed thesis and ca. 15 Postdoctoral have worked in his group.

His published work on thin film solar cells with earth abundant materials for thin- film solar cells such as copper zinc tin sulfoselenide (Cu2ZnSnSexS4-x, or simply CZTSS) and high efficiency Cadmium free thin film (Cu(In,Ga)(SeS)2, or (CIGSS) solar cells (over 16% efficiency) has been recognized with h-index 45. He is author and co-author for more than 200 peer-reviewed journal articles including numerous conference contributions, 5 special issues. He granted several patents.

Academic Education and Qualification (Brefly)

1976 Diplome des Études Approfondies (similar to M.SC. Degree) in Solid State Electronics Uni.   Bourgogne, Dijon, France, with dissertation titled: «Influence of laser radiation on phase transition   in Iron doped BaTiO3»

1979 Doctorate in Solid state electronic (magna cum lauda), Uni. Bourgogne, France, with a thesis defended on May 1979, titled: «Investigation of TiO2/Electrolyte interface for solar energy conversion» 1980-1983 Appointed Assoc.t Prof. University Mohamed V, Rabat (Morocco)

 Visiting Assoc. Prof, CNRS, Meudon, Bellevue, France

1983-1987 4-years Research Stay at at Hahn-Meitner-Institute-Berlin, conducting research for the Habilitation degree, supervised by Prof. Helmut Tributsch.  

1987 Habilitation (summa cum laude) "titled “Iron Disulfide: Synthesis, photoelectrochemistry,   and physical properties for solar energy conversion” conducted at Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Solar energy Division

1986 - 1990 Prof. Uni. Mohamed V Morocco and Professor (1994)

1990 Research Scientist position at Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Solar energy Division Professor, teaching Graduate courses at Uni. Mohamed V (Morocco)

2009-2014 Nominated Radiation protection commissioner, leading the XRD facilities in the department Heterogeneous material department at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin

2000-2015 Group Leader & Project at heterogeneous material department Manager research group at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin

2010-2011 Contribution to the Graduate Tutorial Seminar on renewable energy at Free University Berlin evaluating students  

2009-2013: Visiting professor, at Osaka University, Japan. Delivering lectures for graduate students on non-vacuum processing of metal chalcogenide for PV application

2012 -2014: Managing CHEETAH on printed CIGS and CZTS Solar Cells

2015 –2017 Research Director for solar energy group at Qatar Environment & Energy Research Institute Faculty member (Joint Professor at Hamad ibn Khalifa University, teaching PV technology. Since 2011 President of the scientific Council of IRESEN (IRSESEN)

 supporting the national energy strategy in R&D in the field of renewable solar energy

Key Skills

▪ Teaching physics and material sciences engineering for graduate levels  

▪ Conducting and developing high order thinking skills in workshop.

▪ Use multiple computer platforms and software packages.

▪ Project Management for Scientific Research and Development with Goal Oriented Project. ▪ Excellent Communication Skills / Excellent Team work capabilities.

▪ Analyze and Classify novel advanced materials.

▪ Use new equipment in Materials Science.

▪ Electrochemical Impedance measurements, Rotating Ring Disk techniques, (Photo) and electrochemistry. ▪ Non-vacuum techniques: CBD, SILAR, Spin-Coating, Dip-Coating, Electroplating, Electrophoresis, Inkjet printing.

▪ Surface characterization techniques: Photoemission spectroscopy (XPS, UPS, XAES, Synchrotron NEXAF). ▪ Microscopy Techniques: Scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) ▪ Structural characterization techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). ▪ Solar cells / Electrical Characterization: Light & Dark I-V Measurements, I-V(T) measurements. ▪ Up scaling chemical Bath deposition from lab to fab for CIGSS thin film technology.

▪ Material Ink formulation and D-O-D printing technology

▪ Evaluation of projects and peer publications reviewer

Google scholar database cited publications

Relevant Publications

Review of PV soiling particle mechanics in desert environments

Benjamin Figgis, Ahmed Ennaoui, Said Ahzi, Yves Rémond

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 76 (2017) 872–881. Impact Factor: 6.798 

11.3% efficiency Cu (In, Ga)(S, Se) 2 thin film solar cells via drop-on-demand inkjet printing X. Lin, R. Klenk, L. Wang, T. Köhler, J. Albert, S. Fiechter, A. Ennaoui

Energy & Environmental Science 9 (6) (2016) 2037-2043. Impact, Factor > 30

Monolithically interconnected lamellar Cu (In, Ga) Se2 micro solar cells under full white light concentration B. Reinhold, M. Schmid, D. Greiner, M. Schüle, D. Kieven, A. Ennaoui

Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 23 (12), (2015) pp 1929-1939. Impact Factor: 7.365 DOI: 10.1002/pip.2611

Concepts of inorganic solid-state nanostructured solar cells

T. Dittrich, A. Belaidi, A. Ennaoui

Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 95 (6), (2011) 1527-1536. Impact Factor: 4.732 

Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells from electroplated precursors: novel low-cost perspective A. Ennaoui, M. Lux-Steiner, A. Weber, D. Abou-Ras, I. Kötschau, H-W. Schock, R. Schurr, A. Hölzing, S. Jost, R Hock, T. Voß, J. Schulze, A. Kirbs,  

Thin solid films 517 (7), (2009) 2511-2514. Impact Factor : 1.761


Buffer layers and transparent conducting oxides for chalcopyrite Cu (In,Ga)(S,Se)2 based thin film photovoltaics: present status and current developments

N. Naghavi, D. Abou‐Ras, N Allsop, Nicolas Barreau, S Bücheler, A Ennaoui, C‐H Fischer, C Guillen, D Hariskos, J Herrero, R Klenk, K Kushiya, D Lincot, R Menner, T Nakada, Charlotte Platzer‐Björkman, S Spiering, AN Tiwari, Tobias Törndahl, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 18 (6), (2010) 411-433. Impact Factor: 7.365 DOI: 10.1002/pip.955  

Defect study of Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 thin film absorbers using photoluminescence and modulated surface photovoltage spectroscopy

X. Lin, A. Ennaoui, S. Levcenko, T. Dittrich, J. Kavalakkatt, S. Kretzschmar

Applied Physics Letters 106 (1) (2016) 013903. Impact Factor 3.142 

Highly‐efficient Cd‐free CuInS2 thin‐film solar cells and mini‐modules with Zn(S,O) buffer layers prepared by an alternative chemical bath process

A Ennaoui, M Bär, J Klaer, T Kropp, R Sáez‐Araoz, MC Lux‐Steiner

Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 14 (6), (2006) 499-511. Impact Factor: 7.365 DOI: 10.1002/pip.682

Invited Review Chapiter summarizing my Habilitation (482 Citations)

Iron disulfide for solar energy conversion

A. Ennaoui, S. Fiechter, C. Pettenkofer, N. Alonso-Vante, K. Büker, M Bronold, Ch Höpfner, H Tributsch . Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 29 (4), 289-370. Impact Factor: 4.732

DOI: 10.1016/0927-0248(93)90095-K  

Potential referees

Prof. M.C. Lux-Steiner :

Prof. Dr David Mitzi

Prof. Helmut Tributsch

Teaching experience 1979-2017

I start teaching as assistant professor all undergraduate degrees in 1979. I developed a strong interest for academic teaching. I contributed in teaching and designing curriculum for Bachelor degree where students are learning science

better when they measure, touch, feel, make charts, manipulate, draw, record instead of passive recipients of textbook material.

1994, I was appointed Full Professor of physics at the University Mohamed V (Morocco), and I taught several graduate courses in Photovoltaic technology, material sciences engineering. I introduced (photo)-electrochemistry for photovoltaic use and for water splitting in the MS degree programme and build lab facilities. I built research facilities on the preparation of low-cost materials such as CuIn1-xGaxSe2, CdS, CdTe, CdSe) such as spray, electroplating, electrophoresis, spin coating, chemical processing. Several MS and PhD students have benefited from these facilities

2012, 2013, 2014 I contributed to the Tutorial work at "Freie Universität", Berlin, Germany, related to Renewable Energies Seminar Titled "Lehrseminar Erneuerbare Energien" delivered by our head of Solar Energy Division in the physics department (Professor Lux-Steiner Seminars), some students are hired to complete their Master in my group at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin.

2009-2013: Visiting professor (several months/year) at Osaka University. I taught several courses and seminars on binary and ternary compounds for photovoltaic. I advised several Japanese Master and PhD students for the processing of thin film solar cells. Some Graduate students visited my group for several months at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin with funding from Japan to finalize their PhD work

During my career, 40 completed thesis and ca. 15 Postdoctoral achieved in my group. All my work focuses on new and earth abundant materials for solar energy conversion and low-cost processing

2015 and 2016, I developed Course Syllabus/ SENR 643 on PV technology at Hamad ibn Khalifa University Summary - Solar Photovoltaic Technology courses are designed to provide students with a combination of theory and application skills in current and emerging photovoltaic technologies. The course covers solar energy insolation, and computing the optimal tilt angle of a solar panel. Solar cell physics and fundamentals of photovoltaic and (photo)- electrochemical solar energy conversion will be reviewed. It will focus on wafer silicon photovoltaic technology versus thin film emerging technology and the basic manufacturing processes for the production of solar panels and monolithic integration. Particular interest will be given to low cost manufacturing, resource limitations to terawatt photovoltaic and earth-abundant materials for PV technology. We will explore the energy conversion potential of advanced approaches for improving photovoltaic performance including a survey of other PV solar cell types: III-V devices, high concentration PV, quantum well devices, multijunction structures, organic and inorganic photovoltaics. The course will be completed with cell and module measurements, and how solar cells are connected to form modules and arrays for various applications such as stand alone, grid connected, and building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV).

Other academic courses  

2010 I was invited as “referat” by “Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH” (Germany's leading provider of international cooperation services), and I delivered advanced courses in Photovoltaics for Moroccan university professors to support the Moroccan Solar Plan. I was in charge of several courses on Fundamental and application of Photovoltaic solar cells and system/ Workshop and problem-solving activities courses available in 

2013-2019 I was the scientific program chairman of International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference (IRSEC), meanwhile I delivered Lectures on Solar Photovoltaic and organized several organized during 2015, I organized in QEERI/HBKU a workshop focusing on innovation in photovoltaic technologies titled “Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) Technologies and their Application to Qatar and the MENA Region” in cooperation and-mena-region

Research experience and awarded projects

Worked as Research associate and then scientists at the Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Berlin, Germany (1983-1097). I worked for my Habilitation thesis (Degree to obtain Professor Qualification) with professor H. Tributsch, I developed new earth abundant materials “Iron Disulfide, FeS2” including the Synthesis, (photo) -electrochemistry, and the studies of the physical properties for solar energy conversion. The work was published as invited chapter in the journal Solar

Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 29 (1993) pp. 289-370, with 482 citations). I benefit during my stay at HMI from a very stimulating environment with world-class research efforts Physical, Material Sciences and Engineering, I supervised several graduate students on various projects and acquire career promoting leadership experience in Material engineering and solar energy conversion. I was involved in the set-up and operation of a state-of-the-art laboratory for the new solar energy division created at the Hahn-Meitner-Institute (HMI) with capabilities for materials synthesis photovoltaics and (photo)-electrochemical methods.

1990-1992 I was employed as research scientist at Hahn-Meitner-Institut, « Abteilung Solare Energetik und Materialforschung » working with Prof. Tributsch for the development of highly textured 2D Materials (2H-WS2, 2H MoS2). In 1994, I was awarded to become a member of HMI with permanent status and worked firstly on surface modification of silicon using photoelectrochemical methods to reduce the density of surface states of silicon wafer using ammonium fluoride (an important step in silicon technology).

In 1995, I start working on Thin Film emerging technology and obtained financial support for several feasibility Study financed by industry partners (Avancis/101.500€/, ATHOTECH/100.000 €, SOLIBRO/64.000€). I developed new record efficiency with Cadmium free Solar cells using production scale CIGSS absorbers provided by the industry partners (Ennaoui et al., Progress in Photovoltaics, 6, 1998 pp. 447). I also developed with ATOTECH ( ), efficient Kesterite (CZTSSe) solar cell using low cost electroplating methods (Ennaoui et al. Thin Solid Films 517 ,2009 pp. 2511–2514, 387 citations).  

In 2000, I was appointed head of a group, managing several research European projects as well as projects financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (CISLINE, NEBULES/26 000 00 € ATHLET/1.672.000€, NEUMAS/2.254.000 €, NANOPV/343.500 €), solving problems from academia to proof of concept. The objective is industry-oriented to develop quick, mass-market technology on production levels, with increased efficiency and cost (CAPEX) reduction by simplifying the manufacturing process for Cadmium free CIGS PV solar modules. The projects combine in its consortium a leading German manufacturer of photovoltaic modules with established global equipment manufacturers for the photovoltaic industry and renowned German experts for thin-film photovoltaic. During these entire projects, I visited more than 50 universities and companies and presented several talks on thin film technology, I supervises several Postdoc, PhD and MSC Thesis, and gain experience in management, R&D of innovative alternative materials (CIGS thin film solar absorbers, non-vacuum reactive precursor deposition and non-equilibrium reaction methods, reactive annealing processing, heterojunction device physics, scaling of R&D process technologies to large area, high-volume manufacturing). We became leader in thin film chalcogenides materials and devices (see this special issue: Naghavi, Abou-Ras, Allsop, Barreau, Bücheler, Ennaoui, Fischer, Guillen, Hariskos, Herrero, Klenk, Kushiya, Lincot,  Menner, Nakada, Platzer-Björkman, Spiering, Tiwari and Törndahl, Special issue in Progress in Photovoltaics Vol. 18, Issue 6, pp 389-484: Buffer layers and transparent conducting oxides for chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 based thin film photovoltaics: present status and current developments by 139 citations).  

Since 2008, I extended the area of expertise to nanosynthesis, nanomaterials and nanostructured solar cells (awarded project NANOPV 2008-2011/343.500 €). We developed new method relying on binary and ternary chalcogenide nanoparticles using hot-injection for the synthesis of binary and ternary compounds nanoparticles NPs. We developed several non-vacuum techniques (electrochemical and electrophoresis depositions, chemical bath deposition) for the fabrication of CIGSS and CZTSSe absorbers.

In 2013 I managed in my group the European CHEETAH project ( /755.000 €) on cost-reduction through material optimization, targeting thin Film solar cells new concept and micro design, We developed new techniques for Inkjet printing absorbers with the objective to reduce the production cost by reducing the wastage of materials. Our printed CZTSS solar cell shows an efficiency of 6.4% ( Xianzhong Lin, Jaison Kavalakkatt , Martha Ch. Lux-Steiner , and Ahmed Ennaoui, Inkjet-Printed Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Solar Cells. Advanced Sciences (2015), DOI: 10.1002/advs.201500028). Our printed CIGS solar cell shows an efficiency above 11%, work published in peer review journals with high impact factor 25.4 (X. Lin, R. Klenk, L. Wang, T. Köhler, J. Albert, S Fiechter, A. Ennaoui 11.3% efficiency Cu (In, Ga)(S, Se)2 thin film solar cells via drop-on-demand inkjet printing, Energy & Environmental Science (2016) 9 (6), 2037-2043. DOI: 10.1039/C6EE00587J)

We start exploring a new concept of microdesign solar cell demonstrating a significant material and energy savings. (Bernhard Reinhold,, Martina Schmid, Dieter Greiner, Manuel Schüle,, David Kieven,, Ahmed Ennaoui and,

Martha Ch. Lux-Steiner, Monolithically interconnected lamellar Cu(In,Ga)Se2 micro solar cells under full white light concentration, Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. (2015); DOI: 10.1002/pip.2611, High Impact Factor )

2015 to 2017, I worked as research director at QEERI managing solar energy group and developing project/QEERI-EGC-3008, titled Advanced Thin film Hybrid Low Cost PhotoVoltaic (ATHLOC-PV). The objective is to develop solar cells with reduced material use, following the roadmap towards thinner, cheaper and more efficient thin film solar cells. Innovation will be explored through ink formulation of nopn-toxic inkjet and the development of thin planar solar cells with photonic enhanced optical absorption using inkjet printing. Meanwhile I was managing the solar test facilities at QEERI for testing different PV technologies

Main representative Engagement

My activities as president of the scientific council of IRESEN (Moroccan Solar Energy Institute) allowed me to learn a lot on the strategy for the deployment of renewable energies with the objective to reduce the gap between universities and industry. I am in charge of the evaluation of the program and coaching process of R&D carried out by IRESEN in ensuring the quality and relevance of scientific projects, the examination and evaluation of submitted scientific projects, including the relevance of the required financial support. I also helped IRESEN providing expertise for several PV technologies in the Moroccan green energy research platform. In 2014, I was member of the PV industry progress as Expert Pool Member in the European Photovoltaic Technology Platform learning a lot about Building integration PV. Workig with IRESEN and as Expert Pool Member, I was exposed to a diverse range of challenges, in the Moroccan and European visions, strategies and actions concerning research, technology development, industrial innovation, market development and other important topics.

I am also was active in finding ways to use scientific research as a bridge between Morocco and different countries. I developed leadership skills through organization of annual conference in Morocco (Chair, Keynote speaker) (Chair, Keynote speaker) (Chair, Keynote speaker) (Chair, Keynote speaker) (Scientific Committee Chair, Keynote speaker) (Chair, Keynote speaker)

Scientific Committee and Membership

Scientific committee for AFRICAPVSEC conference

Editorial Board of Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells,  

Scientific, evaluation and Expertise of Research proposal for Technology Foundation STW (Dutch funding agency for academic research in the field of applied sciences)  

Scientific, evaluation and Expertise of the program “sinergia” lunched by “Schweizerische Nationalfonds”(SNF) Invited for several PhD, and MSc defenses in different countries

Scientific Committees and Co-chairman in International Conferences.

IEEE Senior Member; ISES Society active member